Dispensing opticians fit eyeglasses and contact lenses, following
prescriptions written by ophthalmologists or optometrists. (The work of
optometrists is described in Chapter 10. See the statement in Chapter 10 on
physicians and surgeons for information about ophthalmologists.)
Dispensing opticians examine written prescriptions to determine the
specifications of lenses. They recommend eyeglass frames, lenses, and lens
coatings after considering the prescription and the customer’s occupation,
habits, and facial features. Dispensing opticians measure clients’ eyes,
including the distance between the centers of the pupils and the distance
between the ocular surface and the lens. For customers without prescriptions,
dispensing opticians may use a focimeter to record eyeglass measurements in
order to duplicate the eyeglasses. They also may obtain a customer’s previous
record to remake eyeglasses or contact lenses, or they may verify a prescription
with the examining optometrist or ophthalmologist.
Dispensing opticians prepare work orders that give ophthalmic laboratory
technicians information needed to grind and insert lenses into a frame. The work
order includes prescriptions for lenses and information on their size, material,
color, and style. Some dispensing op-ticians grind and insert lenses themselves.
After the glasses are made, dispensing opticians verify that the lenses have
been ground to specifications. Then they may reshape or bend the frame, by hand
or using pliers, so that the eyeglasses fit the customer properly and
comfortably. Some also fix, adjust, and refit broken frames. They instruct
clients about adapting to, wearing, or caring for eyeglasses.
Some dispensing opticians, after additional education and training,
specialize in fitting contacts, artificial eyes, or cosmetic shells to cover
To fit contact lenses, dispensing opticians measure the shape and size of the
eye, select the type of contact lens material, and prepare work orders
specifying the prescription and lens size. Fitting contact lenses requires
considerable skill, care, and patience. Dispensing opticians observe customers’
eyes, corneas, lids, and contact lenses with special-ized instruments and
microscopes. During several follow-up visits, opticians teach proper insertion,
removal, and care of contact lenses. Opticians do all this to ensure that the
fit is correct.
Dispensing opticians keep records on customers’ prescriptions, work orders,
and payments; track inventory and sales; and perform other administrative
Dispensing opticians work indoors in attractive, well-lighted, and
well-ventilated surroundings. They may work in medical offices or small stores
where customers are served one at a time. Some work in large stores where
several dispensing opticians serve a number of customers at once. Opticians
spend a fair amount of time on their feet. If they pre-pare lenses, they need to
take precautions against the hazards associated with glass cutting, chemicals,
Most dispensing opticians work about 40 hours a week, although a few work longer
hours. Those in retail stores may work evenings and weekends. Some work part
Dispensing opticians held about 66,000 jobs in 2004. Nearly one- third worked
in health and personal care stores, including optical goods stores. Many of
these stores offer one-stop shopping. Customers may have their eyes examined,
choose frames, and have glasses made on the spot. About 30 percent of dispensing
opticians worked in offices of other health practitioners, including offices of
optometrists. Over 10 percent worked in offices of physicians, including
ophthalmologists who sell glasses directly to patients. Some work in optical
departments of de-partment stores or other general merchandise stores, such as
warehouse clubs and superstores. Nearly 6 percent are self-employed and run
their own unincorporated businesses.
Employers usually hire individuals with no background as an optician or as an
ophthalmic laboratory technician. (See the statement on ophthalmic laboratory
technicians in this chapter.) The employers then provide the required training.
Most dispensing opticians receive training on the job or through apprenticeships
lasting 2 or more years. Some employers, however, seek people with
post-secondary training in the field.
Knowledge of physics, basic anatomy, algebra, and trigonometry as well as
experience with computers is particularly valuable, because training usually
includes instruction in optical mathematics, optical physics, and the use of
precision measuring instruments and other ma-chinery and tools. Dispensing
opticians deal directly with the public, so they should be tactful, pleasant,
and communicate well. Manual dex-terity and the ability to do precision work are
Large employers usually offer structured apprenticeship programs; small
employers provide more informal, on-the-job training. About 20 states require
dispensing opticians to be licensed. States may require individuals to pass one
of more of the following for licensure: a state practical examination, a state
written examination, and certification examinations offered by the American
Board of Opticianry (ABO) and the National Contact Lens Examiners (NCLE). To
qualify for the examinations, states often require applicants to complete
postsecondary training or work from 2 to 4 years as apprentices. Continuing
education is commonly required for licensure renewal. Information about specific
licensing requirements is available from the state board of occupational
licensing. Apprenticeships or formal training programs are offered in other
states as well.
Apprentices receive technical training and learn office management and sales.
Under the supervision of an experienced optician, optometrist, or
ophthalmologist, apprentices work directly with patients, fitting eye-glasses
and contact lenses.
Formal training in the field is offered in community colleges and a few colleges
and universities. In 2004, the Commission on Opticianry Accreditation accredited
24 programs that awarded 2-year associate degrees. There also are shorter
programs of 1 year or less. Some states that offer a license to dispensing
opticians allow graduates to take the licensure exam immediately upon
graduation; others require a few months to a year of experience.
Dispensing opticians may apply to the ABO and the NCLE for certification of
their skills. All applicants age 18 or older with a high school diploma or
equivalent are eligible for the exam; however, some state licensing boards have
additional eligibility requirements. Certification must be renewed every 3 years
through continuing education. Those licensed in states where licensure renewal
requirements include continuing education credits may use proof of their renewed
state license to meet the re-certification requirements of the ABO. Likewise,
the NCLE will accept proof of renewal from any state that has contact lens
Many experienced dispensing opticians open their own optical stores. Others
become managers of optical stores or sales representatives for wholesalers or
manufacturers of eyeglasses or lenses.
Employment of dispensing opticians is expected to grow about as fast as
average for all occupations through 2014 as demand grows for corrective lenses.
The number of middle-aged and elderly persons is projected to increase rapidly.
Middle age is a time when many individuals use corrective lenses for the first
time, and elderly persons generally require more vision care than others.
Fashion also influences demand. Frames come in a growing variety of styles and
colors — encouraging people to buy more than one pair.
Increasing awareness of laser surgery that corrects some vision problems will
have an impact on demand for eyewear. Although the surgery remains relatively
more expensive than eyewear, patients who successfully undergo this surgery may
not require glasses or contact lenses for several years.
The need to replace those who leave the occupation will result in additional
job openings. Nevertheless, the number of job openings will be limited because
the occupation is small. Dispensing opticians are vulnerable to changes in the
business cycle, because eyewear purchases often can be deferred for a time.
Median annual earnings of dispensing opticians were $27,950 in May 2004. The
middle 50 percent earned between $21,360 and $35,940. The lowest 10 percent
earned less than $17,390, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $45,340.
Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of
dispensing opticians in May 2004 were: Health and personal care stores, $30,890;
Offices of physi-cians, $30,560; Offices of other health practitioners, $26,970.
Additional Dispensing Optician job resources are presented in the paperback
Health Care Job Explosion! 4th edition by Dennis V. Damp for this
occupational group. Resources include Job Ads, Job Hotlines, Job Fairs,
Placement services, Associations, Books, Directories and Internet (Web) Sites.
Your local library may have this book in their reference section or you can
purchase a copy for $19.95 plus shipping with all major credit cards from our
toll free service at 1-800-782-7424 (Orders Only). Also available at all major
bookstores. Also explore jobs at VA hospitals and other
federal government employment options.
American Board of Opticianry (ABO) and National Contact Lens Examiners (NCLE)
- 6506 Loisdale Rd., Suite 209, Springfield, VA 22150; 703/719-5800. (http://www.abo.org)
The ABO and NCLE are national not-for-profit organizations for the voluntary
certification of ophthalmic dispensers. The ABO certifies opticians.
National Academy of Opticianry (NAO) - 8401 Corporate Dr., Suite 605,
Landover, Maryland 20785; 301/577-4828 or 800/229-4828. (http://www.nao.org
, firstname.lastname@example.org) Web site has a job bank and
résumé upload service.
Opticians Association of America (OAA) - 441 Carlisle Drive, Herndon Virginia
20170; 703/437-8780. (http://www.oaa.org
, email@example.com) Members consist of dispensing
opticians, state opticians’ associations, and retail optical companies. Web site
has job listings and résumé upload service.
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